Professor Shane Crotty, PhD joins MedCram to answer a series of COVID vaccine questions including what are the chances of long-term side effects? How safe is RNA vaccine (i.e. Pfizer / BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines) technology? How long does mRNA from a vaccine stay in our cells? What else goes in vaccines? How long does immunity last? Why are T-Cells so important? Why does Pfizer’s vaccine need to stay SO cold?

Shane Crotty, PhD is a Professor at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology, Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research, Crotty Lab. Professor Crotty also has an academic appointment with the University of California San Diego. See his full bio here:
Professor Crotty on Twitter:

Interviewer: Kyle Allred, Physician Assistant, Producer and Co-Founder of

See our new interview with Prof. Crotty on how virus mutations (UK variant and S. African variant) may be impacting COVID-19 transmission and vaccine efficacy.

Research referenced in this video from Prof. Crotty and his team was published Jan. 6, 2021, in the prestigious Journal Science:

New York Times article highlighting Prof. Shane Crotty’s research:

00:00 Introducing Prof. Shane Crotty’s Research
0:35 How long does COVID-19 “immune memory” last?
0:57 The three primary aspects of immune memory: antibodies, killer T cells, and helper T cells
2:25 The anatomy (protein makeup) of SARS-CoV-2
3:02 Why is spike protein the primary target?
5:17 Could a mutation allow SARS-CoV-2 to infect without spike protein?
7:02 Utilizing lipid nanoparticles to deliver mRNA and the role of RNA normally
9:52 What human cells does an RNA vaccine go into?
10:36 How long does mRNA from a vaccine stay in human cells?
11:44 What else goes in vaccines besides mRNA and lipid nanoparticles? Any preservatives or adjuvants?
12:30 Why are adjuvants used in many vaccines?
14:08 Protein production from mRNA
15:00 Why utilize the “extra” step of mRNA to code for protein antigens?
17:28 Are mRNA vaccines the future of vaccine development?
19:18 Any chance for mRNA to enter our cells’ nucleus?
20:55 The immune response to a coronavirus vaccine
23:17 Expected symptoms from immune response to a vaccine vs. vaccine side effects
25:50 Should people who’ve had COVID-19 get vaccinated?
27:27 Immunity from COVID vaccine vs. a natural infection
28:30 Why does the Pfizer vaccine need to be stored so cold?
29:04 What would you say to a family member who is nervous about a rushed vaccine and RNA technology?
32:37 What about the possibility of long term side effects from RNA vaccines?
33:30 What’s next for Shane Crotty’s research team?

(This video was recorded on December 16, 2020).


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Video Produced by Kyle Allred



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